Thursday, 12 May 2016

ADVERTISING STRATEGIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS TACTICS IN PROMOTING PRODUCT/BRAND

ADVERTISING STRATEGIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS TACTICS IN PROMOTING PRODUCT/BRAND

At the outset, let us understand what advertising is.

Advertising and Public Relations are not ‘mass media’ in the way that the press, the cinema, radio and TV and the folk media are.

They are not so much mediating technologies for reaching the masses as commercial uses of the mass media to get across persuasive messages to large numbers of customers with the primary purpose of selling products, services and ideas.

Advertising and Public Relations are thus ‘applied’ mass media.

Advertising and Public Relations have indeed been the engines of growth for the mass media since much of the financial support for the development of the technological media has come from business and industry.

Both business and industry need large-scale advertising and public relations to make their wares, strengths and differentiators known in the marketplace.

This has resulted in a certain ‘interdependence’ of the media and business. Further, since other social institutions too (such as politics, education, religion, atheism, agnosticism, science, rationalism, empiricism, and art and culture) need to speak to the public and to publicise their activities, they are required to make use of the media as well.

As a consequence, advertising and public relations have become so closely intermeshed with the mass media that the distinction between the media as public fora and as tools of publicity for business and other social institutions has become gradually blurred.

Advertising and Public Relations thus hold the key to understanding both the form and substance of modern mass communication.

Indeed, the history of mass communication has been largely shaped by the needs of advertising and public relations on the part of business, government and other social, political and cultural institutions.

Both advertising and public relations are forms of publicity, but with a difference.

Advertising is paid for, and is direct and explicit: media users for the most part recognize advertisements for what they are, and know who has paid for them, as well as who the sponsors are.

Advertising rates for the various media are in the public domain and so the ‘adspend’ can be calculated.

The source of the advertisement is also known, so is the name of the agency that created or produced it.

Public Relations, however, is subtle and often unrecognized by the general public. It is not paid for directly, and the sponsor is rarely mentioned.

That is largely true for ‘press or media relations,’ ‘advertorials’ and lifestyle/celebrity (or ‘Page Three’) journalism. However, in PR activities such as community services, exhibitions, cultural and sports events, health camps and so on, the sponsor’s name is widely publicized.
An advertisement is thus a public announcement with the avowed purpose not so much to inform as to persuade the public to buy a product, a service or an idea.

According to the Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act of 1954, an advertisement includes ‘any notice, circular, label, wrapper, or other document and any announcement made orally or by means of producing or transmitting light, sound or smoke.’


Public Relations, on the other hand, is the ‘deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain understanding between an organization and its public.’

Tuesday, 10 May 2016

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY


 Over the last 100,000 years our species has been on quite a journey: we have gone from living as primitive hunter-gatherers surviving on scraps to a planet-conquering hyper-connected species that defines its own destiny.

Today we enjoy mundane experiences that our ancestors could never have dreamed of. We have clean “rivers” (meaning clean municipality-supplied water) that we can call into our well-adorned “caves” (meaning homes, bungalows, apartments, condominiums, villas, townhouses) when we desire.

We hold small rock-sized devices (meaning smartphones, tablets, iPads) that contain the knowledge of the world.

We regularly see the tops of clouds and the curvature of our home planet from space.

We send messages to the other side of the globe in eighty milliseconds and upload files to a floating space colony of human beings at sixty magabits per second.

Communication has been classified into several types: in terms of the verbal and non-verbal; the technological and non-technological; the mediated and non-mediated, the participatory and non-participatory and so on.

Most of these typologies, however, are primarily for pedagogic or instructional purposes; in actual practice, there is much overlapping and mixing of the various types. The typologies must be seen as attempts at coming to grips with the apparently simple but really complex phenomenon of communication.

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One common typology relates to the size of a social group or the number of people involved in the experience of communication. Such a typology ranges from the intrapersonal and interpersonal and transpersonal, to the group and the mass.

Another typology relates to the extent of interactivity between the participants in the context of different technologies. So we can speak of face-to-face non-mediated communication, ‘mediated communication’ and ‘computer-mediated communication,’ for instance.

Because of the complexity and the many varieties of conflict within organisations, no single technique will enable all organisations to manage conflict effectively. There are, however, three basic kinds of action to consider. One, two, or all three of them might prove helpful in a given conflict situation. They include increasing intergroup contacts, determining a superordinate goal, and restructuring the organization.
One way to defeat stereotypes and increase communication is to bring the conflicting parties into more frequent contact. This can be dangerous, however. Sometimes combatants who are brought together merely devote their time to propaganda, arguing themselves as right and the other side as wrong and thus reinforcing the stereotypes they were supposed to destroy. This is especially likely when the parties have made up their minds in advance about all the matters in contention and when the intergroup contact is between representatives who are committed to upholding their own group’s position. On the other hand, the chances for success increase if the parties see such meetings as a method of developing joint solutions and as a rich source of shared data for problem solving. This has been proved experimentally as well as in actual practice. In one field study that the students of corporate communication of the International Institute of Mass Media conducted in a manufacturing plant in Haryana, the formation of an intergroup task force not only reduced destructive conflict but also resulted in a sixty percent increase in product quality.



Wednesday, 4 May 2016

ASSESSMENT OF AUDIENCE AWARENESS, ACCESSIBILITY AND PATRONAGE OF ONLINE NEWSPAPERS


All newspapers now have an online version and some have only an online version and are referred to only as ‘online newspapers.’

The audience of online newspapers tends to be younger. Younger people typically tend to be very well-informed and better-informed than older people.

The audience for online newspapers, by virtue, of its age and demography, is also much more tech-savvy as well as mobile. They like to get their news on the go, via smart phones, tablets and hand-held devices hooked to the internet while they might be commuting in the metro or while sipping cool drinks in a pub or a restaurant.

Such people are high on awareness and they are accessible to the portals since they are online 24 X 7. They also access the online newspapers in a geographically dispersed area ranging across town, cities or countries.

Who then is a ‘Journalist?’ And what is ‘Journalism?’ The words ‘journalist’, ‘journal’ and ‘journalism’ are derived from the French ‘journal,’ which in its turn comes from the Latin word ‘diurnalis’ or ‘daily.’ The ActaDiurna, a handwritten bulletin put up daily in the Forum, the main public square in Ancient Rome, was perhaps the world’s newspaper.

In later periods of history, pamphlets, tracts, reviews, periodicals, gazettes, newsbooks, corantos, news sheets and letters came to be termed ‘newspapers.’ Those who wrote for them were first called ‘news writers’ or ‘essayists’ (even ‘mercurists’) and later ‘journalists.’

The Mughal rulers in India employed ‘vaquianavis’ and ‘confia-navis’ as public and secret news writers to record once a week in a ‘vaquia’ (a sort of gazette or mercury) the events of importance in the empire. These news letterswere read to the king every evening by the women of the court.

The British colonial rulers used a system of ‘informers’ for their ‘Eyewitnesses’ were in the tabloid tradition.

In recent years, India TV, Janmat (now Live India) and the crime-based programmes on several television news channels verge on the sensational and the tabloid.

Now let us examine what ‘news’ is. The nature of journalism and one’s approach to what journalism is, therefore, depends on one’s perspective of news and news values.

News is the account of an event, not something intrinsic in the event itself. Hence ‘news’ is the written, audio or visual presentation of the event. Further, such a presentation or ‘representation’ or ‘construction’ of an event has to be in a particular format and is selected according to a certain professional value-system to make it ‘news.’ It needs to be emphasized that ‘news is the end product of a complex process that begins with a systematic sorting and selecting of events according to a socially constructed set of categories.’
So, it is not the event which is reported that determines the form, content, meaning or ‘truth’ of the news, but rather the ‘news’ that determines what it is that the event means.

The meaning results from the cultural discourse that ‘news’ employs. As one renowned social linguist puts it: ‘News is a social institution and a cultural discourse which exists and has meaning only in relation to other institutions and discourses operating at the same time.’

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