Wednesday, 19 July 2017

5 reasons to study mass communication

Practical Reasons for choosing Mass Communication Courses 

If you have the willingness to learn and a drive to explore then these are the key indications to think seriously about starting your career in Mass Communicationand Journalism. But are you in a state of confusion or dilemma, whether to study Mass Communication or not? Do you feel that a Mass Communication degree may or may not be worth your time and money? Are you scared of experimenting with your career and choose to do a Mass Communication degree instead of doing engineering or a B.Com course?.

Well, these are few of the many questions, which keep floating in every student’s head who has a slight inclination towards Mass Communication and Media courses. So, if you are keenly interested in studying Mass Communication but need enough reasons to go ahead and build your career in it then this article might suggest you some of the most practical reasons to opt for Mass Media related courses.

There is no end to new possibilities

Searching for new stories and digging the truth in them, communicating to a large number of people or sometimes a celebrity or a politician, developing ideas and concepts for various organizations and people, designing a logo or a brand, staging opinions on social issues and sharing them on pubic platform, creating films and stories, capturing the most meaningful photographs, creating taglines for a product, there can be a whole book written on ‘Why Mass Communication is fun to study. Clearly, no other course can offer you all the above mentioned attributes and that’s what makes this course a right career option.

Practical Exposure and Adventure

Not only this course enables you to travel at various places, explore the world from a perspective of a journalist or filmmaker etc. and cover different events and stories, but it also gives you a freedom to use your creative skills to its fullest. There is no one way to work in this field, you can explore and figure out what will be your style of working. Taking risks, coming up with exciting ideas, influencing people and manipulating others is all part and parcel of the mass media world.  It develops critical thinking, problem solving, conflict resolution, team building, and public speaking.

Art and Creativity 
It develops skills like critical thinking, problem solving, conflict resolution, team building, and public speaking. It is no less than an art, from speaking persuasively, to writing imaginatively; attracting your audience through attractive visuals, inquisitive taglines, tempting words and eye-catchy designs, what makes this field an artist’s delight.

Multiple career options

Studying Communication can help you succeed professionally.  Creating strong oral and written messages, working well with others, managing your image, researching, analyzing and solving problems are key abilities employers look for. As soon as you are sure about your key interest area in Mass media, you can apply for internships in newspapers, magazines, FM channels, Production houses, PR firms etc. and kick-start your career from there; having multiple skills and vast knowledge could help you go really long in this field.

MassCommunication course includes print and electronic media radio, photography, advertisement and public relationsfilm making and new media, it is important to study mass communication to obtain comprehensive and advanced education in the field and seek wide career opportunities. 

Friday, 14 July 2017

The Three Stages of Production – Roll Camera Action!

“Cinema is the culmination of the obsessive, mechanistic male drive in western culture. The movie projector is an Apollonian straight-shooter, demonstrating the link between aggression and art. Every pictorial framing is a ritual limitation, a barred precinct.” ―Camille Paglia

The many facet of cinema makes it more desirable, mystical and magical.  Indeed, it is no less than a supernatural world where everything seems so real yet illusionary, close yet unattainable and enthralling. Cinema makes you forget that you are sitting in the theatre. It makes you feel that you are a central part of a film, playing the role of a protagonist or antagonist in the rarest of rear case!
What makes it the most important art form is the fact that it has an immediate influence on our mind; it tempts us to believe in fantasy and lures us to desire a castle in the sky.

Filmmaking involves a number of distinct stages, from an idea to creating a motion picture with characters as real as a mirage in the dessert. Each stage is as important as the others in determining the success of the film. Here's a short introduction to all the three stages of filmmaking:-

1. Pre-Production – (The Writer’s Stage) this is the stage where the idea is born and developed. Adapting a story from a book, novel or writing a fresh concept is a part of this stage. Precisely, pre-production is all about writing. Once an idea for a story is created, a treatment for it is produced. This is a 25 to 30 page description of the story, the characters and the mood. It usually comes with some visualizations to highlight the key points or moments in the movie. This stage consumes most of your time and brain; planning paperwork, locations recce ,  selecting cast and crew, booking equipment and post facilities, dealing with legal paperwork, creating a budget, accounting for ancillary rentals and services, etc. are some of the tedious tasks that are.

2.  Production-  (the Roll, Camera , Action stage) – It this stage, where the three most tempting and  famous words are used- Roll, Camera , Action.  The actual shooting of the movie happens in this stage. Shooting in itself is a major task, which requires both physical and aesthetical skills; be it indoor and outdoor shooting, challenges and limitations are pretty much apparent. Shooting involves setting up props, camera and other equipment like lighting etc. prepare the actor and the scene takes hours of hardwork and labor.

3. Post-Production ( Cut and Join ) In this stage, the movie is edited and polished. Undesirable scenes are cut or shortened to service the overall narrative. After the entire film is edited, the final sound mixing is done, where narrations, music and voice recordings are put together to create a gripping effect. Later, graphics and Special effects are added, along with opening titles and the closing credits. Once this is done, the movie is now considered locked. The final cut is now ready for printing, duplication and distribution. 

To study Bachelor of Acting & Film Studies (BAFS), please visit

Monday, 10 July 2017


Globalization is a phenomenon. We all know that. It is something which has actually led to the entire planet earth turning into a village of sorts. It is a process with which large scale integration of culture, products, ideas and views is happening across the globe. After all, just click into google or YouTube, and what is it that that one cannot read or see about what is happening or has happened in any place right from New York to Tokyo? Everything, literally everything, is at our fingertips.

Mass media, too, is undergoing a serious metamorphosis due to globalization. However, the effects of this are varied the world over. In the US, for instance, they say, print media is going out of style. No one reads. People just surf over the internet and catch up with news and views. In India, the picture, as per some media pundits, is different. We still read. Taking at least fifteen minutes out for going over the morning newspaper is still like religion for most of us. We still pick up books.

With globalization, what has happened is that everything is available to us within an instant. The newspaper will tell you what happened, but it will do so tomorrow morning. TV channels will flash it rightaway, within a few minutes or maybe an hour to two after it happens. So does the internet. Don’t we all feel really, really connected with what is happening in the entire world?

However, there is a downside of globalization. Our awareness, and the level to which they touch a chord in us, of things happening hundreds of kilometers away is by far more than those which happen in our own midst. Take an example. We no longer care for our old and ailing neighborhood aunt who made ‘halwa’ for us when we were kids. But Hillary Clinton losing the presidential election made us all go all sad and unhappy. Are all our kids not crying their hearts out for their peer group in Syria? Don’t they know who Donald Trump is? Are the Oscars any different anymore from our own Filmfare awards? Louisiana is as familiar as Ludhiana now. And all this - because of globalization……….. 

You can also go through IIMM NEWSLETTER

Written by: Rinky Sehgal Marwaha

Thursday, 6 July 2017

Meaning and Scope of Photojournalism

 Pictures and visuals are a part of mass media since the time of its inception. Photojournalism began in 1853 with the coverage of a war by Carol Szathmari.  Soon, it became a quintessential part of journalism. Photo Journalism is defined as a combination of written information along with pictures relating to the story. Together a story along with a photograph adds more meaning, relevance and reliability to the information; it is undoubtedly the first thing that attracts the reader or the viewer.
According to Warran, Phillip and Edwin “photograph is capable of high fidelity reproduction of very fine detail and texture”.  A catchy headline, with detailed news story and a connecting photograph along with a caption makes a complete package and assures better communication and a smooth delivery of the information.

Most of the newspapers especially supplements use the gratification theory to attract more readers, for intense using eye-catchy pictures of a celebrity can make many readers to go through the story. Photographs accompanied with hard stories like a mis-hap, crime or accidents helps immensely to increase the credibility of the story. Photograph also works as an evident and justifies the story to the readers, without which the story remains incomplete and less-attractive.
In photo journalism, sports pictures hold a unique position. Sports news without a picture  is incomplete. Sports pictures present action and style which usually becomes the sole constituent of the news.

Responsibilities of Photojournalism
-    No matter if a photograph is aesthetically great and well-clicked; it is considered mundane if it does not connect with the story. The first and the foremost responsibility of a photojournalist is to click a picture that gives correct information to validate the story. 

-   A photojournalist is required to cover all the events, press conferences, interviews or any other incident that has taken place. Sometimes, they even have to risk their life in order to click the pictures from a particular angle. Many newspapers or tabloids or magazines rely only a photograph because every story cannot be covered and quite often some images do not even require a story, a picture with a caption can draw more attention and generate interest of the readers.

-  Most photojournalists succumb to the vanity and competitive nature of contests. Unlike other journalism competitions, which separate stories by circulation, most photojournalists and photographers compete head-to-head with their best images. The winner takes all.

Today, more and more photographers are developing interest in photojournalism, with the technological advancement and introduction of latest equipment has made it possible for the photographers to grab the most astonishing pictures. Even common people use their smart phones to click interesting pictures and use the social networking sites to share them with the masses. 

Monday, 3 July 2017

The untold facts about – Indian Media

 “ In the new global economy viewers look for titillation in news, which is why we show a lot of cinema, a lot of cricket and plenty of crime”  Laxmi Narain Goel, Director- News Group, Zee News.

India is a democratic country, where people are the ultimate source of power.  A democratic society permits freedom of speech and expression and this is where Indian media comes in. Undoubtedly, democracy could not have been possible without the free press.  Since its inception Indian media has played a very important role in bringing awareness and educating the masses.  To a very large extent media is responsible for people’s behaviour, mindset and attitude.
Indian Press is an asset for our country; media indeed is a watchdog of our society.  India is the biggest newspaper market in the world.  But, there is a flip side to it. The common people, who are the main targets of the media, get rather misinformed.  Since, Indian media works on ‘Self- regulation’ therefore media has enormous power and control.

Untold facts about the Indian Media
Inaccuracy:  With immense increase of news channel, newspapers and social media networking sites, rumors, yellow journalism, sensationalism and inaccurate information is on the rise.  Lack of knowledge and immaturity is very much reflected in the reporting or writing style of journalists and reporters.

Some of the most bizarre and bogus breaking news are mentioned below:

-       Mili ek laash, naa zinda-naa Murda! (A corpse found, neither dead nor alive!)

-        Witch asked for onion in the night 

-        Obama was found with youngest bride (where Osama was replaced by ‘Obama)

Stories on rivalry between a ghost and a ‘baba’, dog and a snake or a criminal who wears a mask is justified by the rise in the TRPs of the channel. This clearly proves the fact that media is callous and insensitive many a times.

Provocative:  Competition and TRPs is the reason behind the provocative and sometimes misleading news shownrepeatedly on news channels. Even social media is also moving in the same direction, anyone can now have their own YouTube channel and upload videos. Messages sent across by the media, especially television shows are sometimes racist, sexist and biased; which leads to violence and panic in the society.

Exaggeration: In 2012, tens of thousands of youngsters from the north-east of India living in Bengaluru fled the city because of anonymous messages that all north-easterners were going to be killed. Those who sent these messages were never caught because they hid in the anonymous world of the Internet. Terrorists constantly use the anonymity of the web.- 

Excerpts from the OUTLOOK Magazine. This example tells It all. Exaggeration and hype are some publicity stunts that media uses to grab attention and attract the public.

Biased: Media is supposed to be completely unbiased and impartial. Many news channel and newspapers privately support a particular political party and therefore are biased while presenting a story or a report. Another reason behind media’s biasness is the fact the many channels and newspaper are owned by influential political personalities who have their personal views, ideologies and vested interest which is reflected in the way they present the news to the audience.

Paid News:  Paid news can be defined as-  paid content are those articles in newspapers, magazines and the electronic media, which indicate favourable conditions for the institution that has paid for it. Paid news is considered unfair and biased. It uses news as a tool to promote a brand, a company or a person. It is a much advanced and hideous form of advertisement, which raises many questions against journalism and its ethics. This also gives rise to black money and corruption. 

Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Public Relations and its benefits

The combination of Public Relations and Advertising can convert any product into a brand. If used in the right manner, with good planning, it can really help in penetrating the market and boosting up the brand values, its reach and finally the sales.  An efficient and skilled PR team and advertising agency can prove to be the most important factor in reaching out the target audience.

PR through its strategic outreach and relationship building approach can attract media coverage. It helps in influencing, persuading and motivating consumers through multiple types and styles of promotional tactics. Some of it includes direct communication or grabbing public attention through various campaigns and events.

Roles and Responsibilities of a PR agency

The first and the foremost responsibility of a PR team is; Strategic planning, which include campaign creation and execution. This can be done through ‘Key Messaging, where the important messages are interlaced creatively and subtly, so that it generates an emotional urge in the consumer’s mind.
Second important role of a PR agency is to build up relations with the media; this can be done by reaching out the reporters, producers, editors etc. This can be done simply by writing press releases.

Apart from writing press releases a PR team is also expected to write collateral copy, speeches, web copy, etc.  A Public Relation Officer is also accountable for training their clients to prepare for real interviews, facing the media and making public appearance during events and presentations.

Conducting events, parties and press conferences for the promotion of their client and handling the social media networking by cultivating the online conversations for clients and the agency, is also a part of a PRO’s job. Other responsibilities includes graphic designing, creating video content and continuously creating new ideas and ways for promotions.

Benefits of a well-planned PR campaign

Inexpensive: Economically PR is way too affordable than advertising, it not only works in brand building but helps in developing a one-on-one relationship with the target audience.
Credibility: The major task of a PR professional is to attract reporters in order get more media coverage, therefore PR is more authentic and credible than advertisements; after all, News stories are considered more convincing than an advertisement.

Relationships: PR has the ability to build up relationships with the media and consumers on behalf of their clients, if done with the correct approach can help in building trust and publicity.

Visibility: PR can increase the search engine optimization and publishing regular posts and updates on social media and other internet channels, enhances visibility greatly.

Direct Appeal: PR coverage allows the client to share their perspective, ideologies and opinions to the public. Conducting meeting, seminars and workshop to influence, inform and persuade the consumer proves to be extremely beneficial for promotional purposes.
Hence, if used correctly with the right approach and planning PR can be a valuable marketing tool benefiting your brand position and bottom line. PR is not the only answer to a strong marketing campaign, but it is an important practice to employ in order to build strong brand credibility, legitimacy and value.

PR can be a great career option for those interested in it, Studying PR, advertising and marketing from a profound institute or college can widen one’s knowledge and creativity. Getting a Post-Graduate Diploma or a Degree in Public Relations and Advertisement can kick start your career very well. 

Looking for a career in Public Relations & corporate communication, and corporate events, products launch, IIMM offers PG Diploma in Advertising and Public Relations
Post Graduate Diploma in IMC Integrated Marketing Communication (MARCOM) with specialisation in Advertising; Public Relations; Marketing; Corporate Communication; Digital Marketing; Event Management.

Wednesday, 7 June 2017

You can also become a good News Anchor


Are you talkative? Do you follow news more than checking your Facebook account and whats app chats? Do you feel a strong urge of sharing your opinion on current issues at any social or public platforms? Does debating on various issues excite you? Do you go that extra mile to gather a deeper knowledge, understanding and information about a particular event or incident? Do you regularly update yourself with changing political and economical scenario in the world or at least in India? Do you have a favorite anchor whom you admire more than a Bollywood star or a cricketer? If so, then you have all the reasons to become an Anchor or a News Presenter or a News Reader.

But before taking up anchoring as a career option, it is highly advisable and recommended to go through a reality check and get an in-depth understanding of what it is all about.  Here are some myths about News Anchoring:-

Anchoring is about reading the prompter

A news anchor is responsible for understanding any events or happenings profoundly and is also accountable for writing his or her own news copy, operating the control board, and conducting investigative journalism.

Anchor’s only job is to speak in front of a camera

A news Anchor has to be on his/ her feet all the time. Just reading the script aloud cannot make anyone a good anchor. It requires spontaneity and quick wittiness.  There are moments when breaking news is fed to the anchor at the eleventh hour, the anchor should be able to understand the news and interpret it spontaneously without a script.

Anchoring is the easiest job

Many of us believe that anchoring has a glamour quotient; it is an easy way to fame and become popular on television.  An anchor’s job although looks very tempting from the outside, but in reality it is painstaking and extremely stressful. An anchor has to be meticulous, alert, energetic and on his toes all the time , Handling technical glitches, anchor will need to cover up for the time lag and instantly come up with ideas to keep the audience engaged are some of their everyday jobs.

News gathering is not the anchor’s job

Most anchors are responsible for reporting their own story. They collect news and gather information on their own.  There is not much difference between an anchor and a reporter; An anchor gives identity to the News channel and therefore they play a very prominent role in boosting the TRP ratings of the channel.

News anchoring is a combination of various qualities like studying the background of the news, investigating it, presenting it in a way that can grab more attention, keeping your viewers connected t o the channel. 

News anchors have to remain objective all throughout their report even if they are reporting on emotionally charged situations that the public feels so strongly about. News anchors should not get too impulsive or impatient reading the news to the viewers. They must follow the news ethics very well and should not inflict or provoke anybody’s sentiments and respect the opinions of others.

Getting a bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Mass Communication and Journalism from a good college and institute can help in polishing and develop the skills required for becoming a good news anchor.

Monday, 5 June 2017

Building your career as an RJ: Simple yet exciting

Radio is one of the oldest modes of communication and perhaps the most influential one, sharing your thoughts, opinions and informing people in the most happening and interesting way; melodious music, movie shows and a platform to discuss societal issues, gives radio the immense power to draw a larger public to it.

Millions of callers everyday share their feelings and views with their favorite RJs It’s fun yet challenging, exciting yet introspecting and connecting yet accountable. Undoubtedly, Radio Jockeying is the most unpredictable, time bound, spontaneous and a skillful job.

Creativity is an asset
Creativity can never be underrated in any field, but when it comes to Radio it is surely an important tool and probably the most important one too. Other responsibilities of an RJ are programming function, writing scripts, working on the control board, keeping program logs etc. An RJ needs to be alert and aware all the time. Having good interviewing skills is also very important, especially when a celebrity is invited for a show it is important to ask the relevant questions and seek expected answers from them, is what keeps your listeners captivated. Extracting stories from your own life and experiences can also help in bonding with your listeners well. The coordination between the whole production and programming team plays a crucial role.  In simple words, it has to be the combination of freshness and flavors, humor and intensity, informing and entertaining.

Today, Radio Jockey is the most exciting and successful field. It has the power to influence youth, women, men and children. Various types of shows based on entertainment, health, politics and social issues. A good Radio Jockey or Announcer should have the correct information and knowledge on the topic, which requires off-air preparations, research and being spontaneous.  

Qualification required

A bachelor's degree is usually required for radio announcer positions, Bachelors or Master’s degree in Mass Communication and Journalism will provide practical as well as theoretically training to the students of mass communication.   Announcers in sports broadcasting often need a strong background in the sports and similarly for any other beat. Other skills required for being a good RJ are, one  should be fluent in the particular required language, Voice modulations and variation are also very important, not being monotonous is also an added skill. If you can sound different on your show, people will enjoy listening to you. Depending on the type of radio show, specialized knowledge or experience may also be required. These are the possible career options in Radio that open up for you if you do a professional degree in masscommunication at the graduation or post graduation level from the InternationalInstitute of Mass Media

      1. English Newsreader on Radio
      2. Hindi Newsreader on Radio
      3. English Radio Jockey
      4. Hindi Radio Jockey
      5. English Radio Announcer
      6. Hindi Radio Announcer
      7. Writer
      8. Programmer 

Thursday, 1 June 2017

How New Media effects the society?

New media technologies are a great boon to our society; this is mainly because our economic and social lives have been dependent on them. Modern media knows no boundaries and is not restricted to just newspaper, television, magazines anymore. Undoubtedly, new media has made a huge impact on how we behave, live, communicate and socialize. Media not only informs us but influence our thinking, personality and attitude. But, it is also imperative, that we understand these new media technologies and their positive or negative impact on us. Emergence of new media has prominently transformed the traditional way of understanding media and its importance. The political, economical and social scenario has changed invariably after the advent of new media. Digital media is the buzz word these days. Our everyday life is regulated and is dependent on it, either partially or in many cases, completely. The world is moving fast primarily because of the digital media.  

Positive impact of new media technologies

The unlimited access to media; its inexpensiveness and innumerable modes of collecting information, has helped our society grow faster than ever. These new technologies include internet, YouTube, blogging, chatting, twitting and Facebook. We can watch videos on our smart phones, pay bills online, send pictures, text and even business meetings happen on Skype these days. The internet has become the fastest growing and widely used medium, especially in the Western world. Many newly emerged organizations and firm are running their business through internet only. Online marketing and advertising are much more prevalent today than ever before.  It helps in sharing of ideas beyond borders. It’s not surprising to know that, for the 18-49 age groups, YouTube has greater reach than any cable network. Youth has also found YouTube as one of the biggest and easiest platform to put forward their talent and skills. Many youngsters are now producing their own shows and videos by uploading them on YouTube. The reachability of YouTube across the world has made a miraculous connection between countries and people.

Negative impact of new media technologies
The unlimited access to media has been proved to be a major factor behind our complicated and consumer centric approach towards life.  Social media is not entirely risk-free, with lot of information comes misinformation as well. Cyber safety and security is a major challenge for our government.
Anthony Carmona rightly says ‘Social media websites are no longer performing an envisaged function of creating a positive communication link among friends, family and professionals. It is a veritable battleground, where insults fly from the human quiver, damaging lives, destroying self-esteem and a person’s sense of self-worth’.

New technologies are certainly more available than ever before, but perhaps the existing and increasing digital divide is also a major concern for a developing country like India. The function and impact of new media can only be understood by taking into account all the aspects of it. In the age of postmodern society, the new media-saturated culture becomes predominant over the “real” world, replacing conventional social relations grounded in political economics.

Friday, 26 May 2017

Film Studies and its Impact on Indian Culture

Many traditions and practices of our society are based entirely on superstition, ignorance, lack of education and inequality. Indian caste-system, purdah system and other religious customs have played a prominent role in damaging the growth and progress of our country. We are highly influenced by Indian cinema specially Bollywood films. The characteristics of a perfect hero, villain, mother and heroine have defined the personalities of a common man, woman and youth.  For many, cinema has been inspiring them to dream, fantasize and induce drama in their lives.  Cinema reflects the society, its aspirations, hopes, problems and challenges.

On the hind sight, cinema has also done a lot to eradicate many of the social evils prevailing in India. It can be used as a tool or a device to address some of the deeply hidden issues in the society. Unquestionably, cinema has remained the most powerful tool for mass communication.  Filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Uttpal Dutt or Bimal Roy, have had in the past, picked up some of the most relevant and bold subjects, realism and modern progressive approach were the main components of their films.  Ray’s ‘Pather Pancheli’ talks about how with time one has to accept changes and move on. The story revolves around ‘Apu’ , who with his family, leaves his village but their ancestral house held them back, later the family lost their daughter in the midst of all the turmoil.   A strong story, script, cinematography and music made this film a ‘bible’ for many aspiring or existing filmmakers.  Filmmakers like Ray, have used many devices to send their message across their audiences more strongly and effectively.  Intense characters, deep metaphors, use of symbolism and irony were placed perfectly in the story.

Ritwik Ghatak used sound as simile that helped in highlighting the emotion of the scenes very effectively. For example, he shows the dilemma of a girl when she had to make a choice between her lover and her family, here in the back ground one could hear the sound of the whistling of the pressure cooker, which showed that she was in a tight spot. There films demanded change, rebel and a need to overcome the social evils, in the most powerful stories and characters possible.

Another very influential filmmaker, Bimal Roy, the women in his films, the neo-realist approach, the humanism and progressive subtext of his movies and his impact on the Indian new wave and parallel cinema cannot be sidelined. His film Sujata, portrayed the innate essence of Indian Society onscreen. The film raised many questions about the Indian society, like criticising the caste-system, untouchability and indiscrimination. 

Film studies course

Film studies is a very vast and fascinating field, students are introduced to the ever evolving nature of film, its impact and influence on the people can play a critical role. Cinema is a dynamic as well as cultural tool to represent the world in a more intense way. From studying and analyzing the most progressive films and how they were connected to the major political scenario during that time, like world war I and II, French revolution, Italian Neorealism etc. to understanding the role of the smallest part of a film i.e, a frame. Based on the inclination of the individual student it may launch students in their engagement with cinema and other visual narrative forms as critics or creators.
Based on students’ personal inclination towards the various domains and stages of filmmaking, like scriptwriting , Music Composition ,Costume Designing, ,Editing ,Production Designing, Director of Photography etc. Student will be able to demonstrate their skills, knowledge, awareness and creativity through their films. A student may also proceed to be a researcher and/or an academic in related fields.

Bachelor of Acting and Film Studies

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

Fundamentals of Broadcast Journalism

Edward Murrow is the most significant name in the field of broadcast journalism. He not only contributed in the creation of modern broadcast journalism, but his exclusive radio coverage on the World War II made him the superman of world media during that time. Murrow’s name is associated with journalistic brilliance; he was regarded as the pioneer of television news and reporting. He built up the broadcast industry in the world. His reporting style and bold approach made him the master of Broadcast Journalism.

Defining Broadcast Journalism
In simpler words, Broadcast Journalism is a way of presenting news to the public; electronically or through radio transmission, some of the medium in broadcast journalism are Radio, Television and the Internet.  Traditionally, broadcasting comprised of the audio/ visual based programs; on television and radio, to reach the target audience and deliver the desired message. Advance and development in the technology has brought drastic change and expansion in this field; called ‘web journalism’.

Types of Broadcast Journalism

Radio Journalism:
Radio has its accessibility across borders and in remotest of areas possible; it can reach at places where internet or cable lines cannot reach. In earlier days, it was one of the fastest and most reliable sources of information as well as entertainment. With radio, one does not even requires electricity. A radio broadcast journalist is involved in identifying, researching and presenting news stories, recent events and important updates to the large amount a listeners.
During news broadcasting on radio, announcers are primarily concerned with the delivery of on-air reports, while television stations will also hire announcers to host variety and talk shows.

Television Journalism
Television is considered to be the most influential medium of journalism for various reasons. With the boom of numerous news channels television played a major role in defining the society and its political scenario.  It also impacted people in many ways; starting from breaking stereotypes to a whole new wave of entertainment culture.
A television journalist reports the news on-camera, sometimes live or pre-recorded. TV Broadcast Journalists collect, verify and analyse information about news and events, and present that information in an accurate, impartial and balanced way.

Web Journalism
While the morning reaches us at the set time and carried a few pages of information, similarly with television, the information is limited and time bound; Internet is the only source that is accessible anytime and contains vast information and regular updates.  More and more readers, viewers and listeners are going online for their news. New media is also giving rise to the concept of ‘citizen journalist’ , nowadays more and more people post news, information, opinions and share their perspective on the social media. It has lower distribution cost and a much wider audience and reach. Technologically also it accepts almost all types of formats, reader is free to choose between various options.
Whether you prefer to work in front of or behind the camera, a broadcast journalism career is sure to be an exciting and rewarding experience. It involves responsibilities like informing the public and reporting stories. Getting a professional degree in broadcast journalism course can prove to be very useful for the overall growth of an individual  and to gain wider understanding in the field.
Some of the jobs in Broadcast Journalism are Audio Production, Television Production, Radio Broadcasting,On-air Personality/Disc Jockey,News Reporter, Voice Overs, producing etc.

Friday, 19 May 2017

Media Discourse: Representation and Interaction

Media interacts with the public through various platforms called ‘Media Discourse’. The discourse is usually written or spoken. Media discourse is primarily a public oriented, created and manufactured form of interaction. There is hardly any tentativeness and uncertainty to it and it is not a private affair.  Dontcheva-Navratilova (2005) describes discourse as “Firstly, it is used to refer to unified, meaningful and purposive stretches of spoken and written language. Secondly it is used to refer to the language in action. Last but not least, it is used to refer to the language of particular language variety.”

Types of Media Discourse
It can be understood as multiple forms of communication, it is commonly divided in two main categories; written and spoken. Newspapers and magazines are some forms of written communication. Stories and articles published in a newspaper or a magazine are archetype of discourse. Brochures, pamphlets and written advertisements also fall under this category. 
Spoken communication includes Television and Radio which mainly relies on speech and spoken words. The news we watch on television uses speech, visuals and interviews to communicate with the masses.

The third category which is comparatively newer and technologically advanced is the ‘online media’ or ‘unconventional media’. Nowadays, online platform has become one of the most popular and common means of media discourse. It is much more spread out, fast and interactive. Some of its prominent features are- it usually happens in real time, it can communicate and send messages across the globe, instantly, it gives audience the privilege to put their opinion and thoughts forward. But it certainly lacks authenticity and careful reviewing.
All forms of online media communication are more participation driven. It is also called ‘user generated content’ because user has the complete hold of it, like uploading videos, adding comments and sharing personal thoughts and opinions. Here, the discourse is much more interactive, frequent and engaging.

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Media discourse and its effects
Whatever we read, watch and hear through various channels of communication, affects us and the society on the whole, in many hidden ways. Media discourse can also be viewed as the impact created on the public through media’s presentation. A particular article can be written keeping in mind the social and economic background of the people. The choice of words, the style of writing etc. plays a very important role in impacting the readers. In India media shapes up the society primarily. Media tells us about the current political situations and usually promotes discourse that is biased towards a certain people, beliefs and conservative ideals. This is also based on the channels’ personal ideologies and how they want the discourse to be done.

Like different states, region and countries have different traditions, ideals and principles, similarly media’s opinion, viewpoints, ideologies also vary from region to region. Due to this, many political groups use media to promote a particular viewpoint; this can lead to biased media discourse which can be prevented if media outlet is media is more fact –based rather than presenting their own perspective and opinion. It is very important for the media to value objectivity while gathering news and stay impartial.  

Thursday, 18 May 2017

Negative and Positive effects of Media : IIMMDELHI

“The newest computer can merely compound, at speed, the oldest problem in the relations between human beings, and in the end the communicator will be confronted with the old problem, of what to say and how to say it.” – Edward R. Murrow

Gone are the days when newspapers, television and radio were mainly used for informative purposes and much later for entertainment as well. But today, it has become an obsession; our day starts with getting exposed to media and ends with it too. Media is in our pockets, we have developed a certain kind of love-hate relationship with it. As they say, ‘You can hate media; you can love media but cannot ignore media’. Everyday more and more people are becoming dependent on mass media and cannot imagine their lives without it. It’s hard to feel its presence and its effects on children, youth, men and women.

Starting from billboards, pamphlets to YouTube and emails, we are fed with mostly advertisements events or incidents happening around us. Media technologies (TV, Games, Video, Music, Internet and Mobile phones) have brought substantial changes in the society.
Many sociological theories put forward the view that the media has direct and immediate effects on audience, such as Agenda Setting theory, Hypodermic Needle theory or Uses and Gratification theory.

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The Media Effects Theories
Media effects theories relates to how media affects our culture, society and opinions. Media has an immediate and direct influence on the audience’s mind. It can persuade our decision making and can manipulate behaviour. Television for instance, reflects our society and culture, masses cultivate perceptions of reality from television. The two common words that are associated with media are Propaganda and Persuasion, media decides our choice, decision and reaction. Most media’s effects are direct rather than indirect.

The Hypodermic Needle Theory:  According to this theory, audience is considered to be passive and easily influenced. Here, media messages are perpetually injected into the audience brains. The theory suggests that human reacts to the media uniformly and with equal effect. Media strategically creates the message to get the desired response; it manipulates and influences people.

The Agenda-Setting Theory:  Media uses the ‘Gate keeping’ and ‘Agenda setting’ method to decide which information in what amount and capacity, through which mode will reach the audience. Media then intervenes between the message and the audience, in order to influence the receiver (audience).  For example “if the media has close relationship with the elite society, that class will probably affect the media agenda and the public agenda in turn”

 Uses and Gratification theory: The purpose behind this theory is to ascertain, under what circumstances and deliberations people seek out to media; whether for information, entertainment or socializing. In the field of mass media studies, this is one of the most crucial theories. It is an instrument that connects media with people vis- a-vis technology. Today, people seek various gratifications from their mobile phones like entertainment or social networking. There are several needs and gratification for people like-

1.       Cognitive needs: Where people use media to obtain information and knowledge. They sue media as a tool to develop their intellectual skills and actively participate in the political, economical or technological changes in the world. Their want for knowledge gets satisfied through watching news, internet search or reading newspapers.

2.       Affective needs: For many, media is a source to fulfill their emotional needs and they seek out some kind of pleasure while watching fictional yet emotionally provoking programs and serials. Youth instance, seek gratification from reality shows or rom-coms. Similarly, soap-operas specifically targets women. Such programs are developed keeping in mind what can persuade and draw the target audience towards these shows.

Malcolm X rightly said “The media is the most powerful entity on earth. They have the power to make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and that’s power. Because they control the minds of the people.”

Sunday, 7 May 2017

The Corporatisation of the Media : IIMM

In his paper Corporatisation of media and loss of credibility, the analyst Praful Bidwai argues that the media in India has rapidly seen corporatisation and its redesigned goal of profit-making as opposed to representing the interests of the public. Bidwai also decries the crisis in media credibility. He is not alone; concerns pertaining to the loss of ethics, values, and its agency are remarked by many writers, activists, and scholars. The corporatisation of the media refers to the ownership of production and news houses by institutional investors, leading to concentration of views and types of news.

With more investors vying to occupy the news agencies, the increasing trend is the sidelining or squeezing of regional and independent papers, journals, channels, and magazines. At least, in the early part of the 90s, there were more distinct newspapers upholding the regional and cultural diversity, linguistic diversity, and with different writing genres. Today, search through the print media, one finds that a few media groups such as the Times of India have more profits than the major international papers put together. Without doubt the regional and independent news have seen a stark decline in their circulation and sustenance.

Although some pundits argue in favour of corporatisation of the media, the history points otherwise. India as a new nation tried to oust the Raj’s control on leading newspapers by seeking assistance from industrial houses. The foreign owners changed and new owners took their places. The late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi assigned a cap of 26 percent on foreign equity in newspapers (but, not on television). This period marked by its intensive suppression of the media and increasing state-control, led to fewer changes. Today, the print media and television are owned, invested, and controlled by politicians, businesses, and powerful individuals.

Media, throughout times has had an important role to play. It, being one of the pillars for functioning of a democracy, cannot submit itself to vested interests and revenues. However, by sidelining itself to cover news that is limited, unimportant or even, anti-democratic, it keeps shrouded the essential developments in the country. A recent trend is the perpetration of ideology or highlighting the achievements of the government in office. It means, as long as the public hears about development, about increased growth rate, about satisfying economic indicators, we keep ourselves away from matters which are shed less light. For instance, the farmer suicides, a phenomenon which has existed for over two decades, is projected as an act of desperation of a lone farmer, not as a pattern, as an underlining story whereas, we celebrate the launch of new car models and phones.

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Citizens of the democracy need to concern themselves with the trend. Corporatisation may be marching without much resistance, but it is time to strengthen and show our support to communal prints, individual agencies, and regional news. With technology, it is possible to bring dissenting voices to the mainstream and that is the first counter.

Monday, 1 May 2017

Mass Media and Social Awareness

For a country like India, where people from various backgrounds, communities, castes and religions co-exists, where impoverishment, lack of resources and illiteracy are usual topics of debate at schools and colleges , where politics is always a game changer, where youth has an  immense power to  rebel and fight back. Mass Media plays a very crucial role in running a country like ours, with all kind of colors and avatars. Mass Media is like a USB wire that connects Information (Sender) and Audience (Receiver) without which both will stay in isolation and cannot survive.

In earlier days, sending information was quite struggling, but its value was never underrated. People had access to a very few information sources, like newspapers, radio, television (limited to only Doordarshan), naturally, these sources could only cover the major events happening around and that too in an extremely restricted manner, unlike today, when news reaches your mobile phones within seconds, when public opinion and reactions are just a ‘click’ and a ‘comment’ away . If we look around then we would find that there is no aspect of our life which is not touched and affected by media.

But the million dollar question here is that, are we really socially aware? Do we have the ability to understand the society, its political scenario and economical condition? Do we get the right information and analysis? By simply having zillion channels of Mass Media would not suffice, unless the information we get is relevant and useful.

Non-issues as real issues

 Media often portray non-issues as real issues, while the real issues are sidelined. The real issues in India are economic, that is, the terrible economic conditions in which 80 per cent of our people are living, the poverty, and unemployment, lack of housing and medical care and so on. Instead of addressing these real issues, the media often try to divert the attention of people to non-issues.

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Social Awareness and Its Roots

School education here plays a vital role in building up a child’s intellect. A school can make a child aware and sensitive towards the issues that affects our society. For all aspiring politicians, journalists, activists, lawyers or even artists it is important to be truly aware and informed. Higher education shapes up a student into a grown up responsible citizen, therefore we have colleges that specializes in Mass Communication and various other fields and here a student understands the society from a broader perspective. Where opinions are not copy-pasted, but are formed after in-depth, theoretical and practical knowledge.

We are living in the time where being fast and rapid is the only acceptable way to survive. Where the process of learning and gaining experience is considered to be out-dated and waste. What makes it all worst is the fact that our youth believes only in overnight success and fame.