Thursday, 27 April 2017

IIMM : Mass Communication Institute

IIMM : Mass Comm Students has created videos of the following social spreading messaging for Society.







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Tuesday, 25 April 2017

A STUDY: THE TECHNOLOGY RELATED ASPECTS OF THE US PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN OF 2016 AND THE INDIAN ASSEMBLY ELECTION OF 2017

Technology touches our lives in a hundred different ways. This is a very passé statement. However we keep getting more and more instances of this, unfolding in front of us literally each day. Take, for example, the role it played in the American Presidential Elections of 2016 and in the assembly elections of India in 2017.

Befriending technology to your advantage
Let us consider Hillary Clinton’s odyssey for that matter. It is reported that her campaign’s primary program conducted six times as many simulations each day as compared with Barack Obama’s campaign for re-election in 2012.  In fact, it is even said that this may have had negative repercussions in her entire effort since it led to them believing more in themselves than they should have.

The US presidential election 2016 was based upon a large number of statistical models. These, however, hinge upon a set of may-be type of trends and data. When such assumptions do not come true, the estimates which come out due to feeding this information, may turn out to be incorrect. Donald Trump, however, played it a bit smart. Whenever showed up in the wrong or negative, he always dismissed such election pre-results as “overrated.” Even the Republican digital operations are considered as somewhat less tech-savvy as the democratic ones are supposed to be.
Even then, his data team did score over Hillary’s in identifying core issues and what all needs to be done for him to win the election. Early election patterns showed a lot of rural populace not turning up for voting. Trump played his cards right in increasing his efforts to make them turn up on voting day to exercise their ballot rights.

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Social media as a very live, tangible tool
It has however, been written about, that social media did play a very vital role in helping him win. Steve Bannon, Trump’s campaign boss and now his chief strategist, perfectly well molded his campaign on Facebook and Twitter et al to help Trump come out winners. When something goes viral on social media does not always hedge on if it is actually true or false, but on its shock value. This ploy was used to maximum advantage by the Trump team. Regularly, even false news came up on social sites – but it was something which tried to imprint something positive about Trump in the audience mindset.

It is also believed that Trump’s one big asset was his Twitter feed - The number of people following him on Twitter stand at perhaps even more than 15.4 million, at present. This helped him get loads and loads of free publicity when even mainline media houses commented on some of his often-deplorable tweets. It is also talked about pretty freely in the US that the failure of Hillary Clinton’s campaign is due to too-much dependency on data and statistical methodology. This needed to be a bit toned down and some more of reality brought in, as per common talk. 

the Indian assembly elections perspective
Even the Indian assembly elections for five states  – Goa, Manipur, Punjab, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh- already over in 2017 were fought very vociferously over the platforms of social media. It is widely being spoken that the BJP truly well understood that the use of social media sites is actually something like extending your campaign efforts – that social media is a very vibrant and pulsating methodology which can be used effectively to your advantage to even bring in some sort of change in people mindsets.

This realization also may have come in due to the fact that at the time of becoming Prime Minister of this country, NaMo had over and above 16 million “likes” on Facebook. Also, he was number six in terms of ranking of world leaders being followed on Twitter. Everybody knows that NaMo and his popular image did really aid and abet BJP’s win with 282 seats in a total of 543 in parliament.
Social media helps mold young minds in a very big way
Social media helps to mold the way young minds work – in a very tangible fashion. The youth of today is totally hooked onto this medium and to get them into your fold means making a very concerted bid at playing around on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and their ilk. As per reported numbers, social media did actually make a big difference to about 30 to 40 per cent of the total number of seats. These figures are portended to go up to as much as sixty percent during the 2019 general elections in the country.


The NaMo strategists did totally realize the power of this one weapon – of social media. They created a program called “organize online to assist offline.” With this, they were able to recruit a number of volunteers which finally went up to a very resounding 2.2million people. In some which way, social media helped a lot in making candidates become more accessible to the common man – it just sort of completely brought down the wall that exists between politicians and the normal junta. This bait was used to its sizeable advantage by the BJP in a very precise, effective, big way.  

Sunday, 23 April 2017

WOMEN AND HEALTH AWARENESS THROUGH JOURNALISM

Journalism is a very powerful tool. A potent vehicle. One which can be used to spread messages around the world. And not just for making people aware but also for bringing in a change in our thought processes. Take social causes like women and health awareness. With write ups, audio and video clips about this, one can take the root, the cause, the road to betterment et al about such issues to the common people. Knowledge, they say, is king. If one is in the know of a certain fact, a given detail, we are truly blessed since we can use this very information to our advantage, somewhere, sometime.  

Time was and still is, that the lady of the house did all that she could to get her flock to feel well and have good health. In the process she neglected her own self, her own wellness. Then, came in social messages which propagated the fact that if ladies do not look after their own welfare and fall ill, who will look after the rest of the household? – this message can be said to be a watershed of sorts. It was splashed all over the place – in newspapers, on radio and on TV. Women today are far more in the know of maintaining good health for themselves as well.

Happily, the government is not just sitting pretty
Happily enough, we can say that the government is not just sitting pretty in this vital arena where it can make a difference via journalism and media to women’s health. Take the Women Mobile Lifeline Channel app introduced in 2015. This is being used by NGOs in villages to empower women. It provides information on maternal health, child immunization, girl child health care and adolescent girl health care. This also has a pregnancy and immunization tracker. Within fifteen months of its launch, due to journalism being used as a media path for its publicity, this app received 35,000 subscriptions.

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In December 2015, the Kilkari scheme was unveiled. This is an audio-based service which delivers pertinent messages about child birth, pregnancy and child care. Again, this has received a lot of attention from the media and thus, its awareness and use are spreading out well.

Just a couple of years ago, the government launched Graam Vaani. It is an initiative for mobile phone users to be made aware of certain health related issues, among others. For one, it tried to make women aware of their right to demand good quality care. Another scheme, within the purview of Graam Vaani was Ananya – for those living in Bihar. Then is the very famous Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao scheme – this has received wide scale attention from all walks of media – part of the reason for its success. Another such effort, called Priyadarshini, brought forth in April 2011, too has been tomtommed about. This is a programme which offers women in seven districts access to self-help groups.

Give out information on women’s helplines to forward this cause
Then comes information dissemination regarding helplines along with their numbers in the country. For instance, the numbers for Sakshi – the violence intervention center; for Saheli – a women’s organization; for RAHI – a recovery and healing from incest support center for women; Madhyam helpline – for legal services; and scores of other helplines which promote health for women and take up different causes for betterment and empowerment of women in society are being advertised and should continue to be so for more awareness about how helpful these can be in times of emergency and need.

However, there exists a downside to this whole matter as well. Take advertising on television, on the radio and newspapers – while we have jingles thrown in about how a girl can become fair by using a so-and-so cream for forty days at a stretch. Another one says she can lose weight to the tune of eight kilograms within a week – All these, in some which way, are not good for their health. They will cause some repercussions in the body systems. The fairness cream can harm the skin and cause heaps of infections. There can be other side effects too. Losing a large amount of weight in itself is extremely unhealthy. Then is the emotional and mental aspect of the matter. We should not promote a society which focuses on physical attributes for making girls and women stand out in a crowd. 
It is the responsibility of media faculties to get girls and women in the know of such parameters. The more that is done in this sphere is less since such social ills of girls being well accepted just because they are thin and fair are widely prevalent in our society till date. Thus, if journalism is being used by cosmetic giants to entice girls into using such products which may be detrimental to their overall health, it must be used to show them the harm that these can cause too. We must not go shy in this one aspect. Conscientious journalists are scouring this nasty side of the picture and should continue to cover more such stories.

Use journalism by molding young media students
Journalism students must be made aware, though a series of lectures on this subject, about how they can help women come out of their traditional casts and into a state where they become financially and  emotionally independent. Young students who are doing media courses can be molded into thinking that during the course of their careers later on, they must bring in more awareness of the schemes and initiatives launched by the government to help women. Also, they should realize that they, through their writings and other ways of giving out data, should bring into the open cases of harassment of women in their homes. This can go a long way in bringing in a culture where women are treated with respect. Also, it will really herald in an atmosphere where we celebrate womanhood and not treat it as something like a malaise. 

Tuesday, 18 April 2017

A VIEWPOINT: MASS MEDIA AND PUBLIC OPINION : IIMM

Mass media molds public opinion. What is flashed across news channels, what is heard over the radio, whatever comes to us in newsprint, all help to hone in our views on any given issue. Or so we would like to think. Actually speaking, mass media and public opinion both are interdependent. It is the duty of media people to bring public opinion into cynosure of all eyes. And, it is news and public opinion about this news which makes mass media survive.

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Media people will show up with news and views as it happens across the world. They need sources to verify what they are saying. And, the sources need to have this ability in them to speak out the truth. Therein, as it cannot be emphasized enough, is the ethical connect of the whole matter. Mass media personnel should not be biased. They should approach those who vent out good, honest opinions. Not those who would say something just for getting fifteen seconds of name in the sun for appearing on television or on the radio or having their quote in the newspaper. It is then that public opinion gets molded in the fashion in which it should.



Society is our watchdog………
At the end of the day, it is a wise person who remembers that society is our watchdog. As they say, truth cannot be hidden for long. What the real picture is, will certainly emerge at some point. Hence, it is up to media’s own good sense that it shows up with it right at the very onset. Otherwise, all hell may break loose later on in the day when someone else will point out what exactly happened, along with the when, where, and why of the matter. This holds true for those who are reporting news, those who are making news, and even those who are vouching for news.

Media needs stories to cover and to survive. They should not falsify news and events just to have some fodder for their mills. Likewise, people should not give out opinionated views which may degrade the basic aspect of the given issue.  


Help each other is the way out – report events as they happen and unfold is the word of advice for media people. And come up with sincere opinions is the caution which sources need to exercise. It is then that we can mold public opinion in the manner in which it should be done – to have real, live news and views come out………..


Monday, 17 April 2017

A THOUGHTFUL PERSPECTIVE ON MOBILE AND SOCIAL MEDIA COMMUNICATION

Facebook, as of March 2017, has over 1.86 billion monthly active users.
1.23 billion people logged into facebook as daily active users in September 2016.
About 100 million users log in daily into their Twitter handles.
As of early February 2017, there were 319 million MAU (montly active users) for Twitter.
India, way back in 2013, had 893,862,000 cell phone users.
By the first quarter of 2016, LinkedIn had over 20 million registered users in the United Kingdom alone. 

Overall, this network has over and above 104 million members in the European countries by themselves. Period.

What do these statistics say about the reach of the cell phone and of social media? - That this reach is simply tremendous. It is awesome, in fact. When one imagines people of this planet, using the cell phone and social media networks to this extent, it is difficult to actually visualize the power of this weapon. Just imagine how many people can be accessed, and that too, just at the click of a button or with a tap on a screen.

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Social media stories are mostly true…..
All of us have heard stories of how even our grandmothers have connected with their bum chums of school years via Facebook. Then again, how many of us have not been able to touch base with the first  neighbor we ever had, via Twitter? Are all our kindergarden associates too not back within our friends fold just due to these networks? Yearly annual meetings organized by the alma mater organizations have been replaced by bimonthly get-togethers at the most convenient Starbucks, just because we have a facebook group chat now to keep us in touch live literally each moment of the day. The stories churning out of the social media mill are ever increasing, ever-awe inspiring and what is best about this whole charade is that they are all true. We actually are far more in touch with our past, present and even future, than we ever were before.

Social messaging reaches a new plane altogether…….
Along with social and some form of professional networking, also is coming in social messaging. The cell phone is being used widely over the world by the various governments for promulgating certain messages. Take our very own Amchi Mumbai. It is very common for the Mumbai Police to give out messages regarding its schemes and its various programs via SMS alerts to the people at large. This form of messaging is something which none of us can ignore. After all, when you an unread SMS, you get to it pronto and read it…..do you not? In this manner, the message gets a very wide readership base. At least people are reading it – and somewhere this message will stay in the back of their minds. This form of social advertising is far more viable than making short films and documentaries to be telecast on television or read out on the radio.

Facebook is such a vibrant mode of communicating that one finds all kinds of things popping up on it. We have people advertising their new designs from boutiques, organizing luncheon parties, having freelancers of all kinds network together in secret groups, and what not else. And all this, is literally all FREE of cost! With Twitter, the network which celebrities love to tweet their little somethings to their fans to with, takes communication, per se, to another level altogether. It is not just the case of an Amitabh Bacchan regularly corresponding with his followers here. Even most politicians have taken to it to express their real feelings to the masses and the classes and to let off steam on their opponents from time to time.

……touching base professionally, too……….
With LinkedIn, you have a very real, throbbing platform to even seek out job placements which will enhance your resumes and your lifestyle. This is considered a very respectable medium of communication these days and its user base is steadily on the increase. Here, there is hardly any room for just plain Jane social calling. Serious people who mean business are found on this professional network – a very useful net meeting point for those who are highly career-oriented and wish to shift their vibes into high gear to connect up with like individuals.
Social media is difficult to police……………

The one huge lacuna surrounding social networking it is very difficult to police this base. For instance, governments of countries can do very little about what all goes on here. Barring a few odd instances of banning some posts and tweets, they do not have much say in the social media world. Totally cutting off a full country from such networking is something which is a very harsh measure to take. Most governments do not wish to invoke the ire of their people to this extent. Hence, they go on making a little noise here and there about how one should be conscientious while using these networks.

Sometimes, social media can really give out a strong wake-up call about certain issues. Take the beheading of certain captives by the ISIS. This video, a very disturbingly graphic one, had to taken off air. Even a mid-east European woman killed by stone pelting had gone viral for a while before being deleted out. There were short videos on facebook about finding the remnants of the Malaysian airliner, which had gone missing a couple of years ago. This turned out to be a fake number. In such events, social networks go into another mode altogether of disbursing news as is happens around the world.


By and large, however, whatever happens on these networks is positive. It is sweet and cute nuggets of messages which we wish to give our loved ones, to those we care for. Till such time, things are hunky-dory. Beyond this, it can get real nasty out there. Thus, it is up to us, the users, to keep things on social media sweet and simple - To keep connect with those who matter and leave it at that!  

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Sunday, 9 April 2017

A STUDY: THE USE OF MASS COMMUNICATION IN 2014 INDIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS : IIMM

As per Janowitz, Mass Communication comprises the institutions and techniques by which specialized groups employ technological devices to disseminate symbolic content to large, heterogeneous and widely dispersed audiences. A democracy, as we understand its meaning and definition, is not possible without having free media. Also, effective mass media is very necessary for the democratic elections in any country to take place in a free and fair manner. Votes need to be cast in an unbiased and in a free-from-fear of any candidate or political party for the right candidate to be elected from a given constituency. In addition, the information about all the candidates contesting the election should be totally accurate to help people decide which one they think is best suited for this top notch job. The voters should also be in the know of their rights and what all can be done if they feel these are being violated by any political party or candidate in any which way.

Indian general elections in 2014
As per sources, the voter turnout in the 2014 general elections in India was 66.4 per cent. This was the highest ever turnout recorded in the history of the country. In the 65 years since the first elections, we have had 16 general elections and more than 350 state elections. These elections witnessed that after three straight decades, a party, the BJP won a simple majority on its own steam. The party banked an increase in the voter share from 18 to 31 per cent and the NDA alliance crossed the mark of 300 seats in the Lok Sabha. So, what else has changed in these elections? It is the use of mass communication in political communication which has undergone a sea change.

Exit and opinion polls         
Take the instances of exit polls and opinion polls. Though we as a country have entered this arena of opinion polling a bit late in the day, it has taken over the election process like a storm. Before the big boom of 24x7 news channels, poll surveys were not really in. However, in the 2014 general elections, where polls were held for 543 parliamentary constituencies to elect the 16th Lok Sabha, this whole gambit took on a new meaning altogether. Incidentally, this channel of forecasting elections results was created by Dr. Gallup way back in 1936 and utilized to its most in the 2014 elections.
Also, opinion methodology has greatly improved and agencies like CSDS have hit the right button in predicting election outcomes on 16 occasions, roughly correct on seven occasions and wrong on four occasions. Also, during these elections, there was almost a unanimous verdict of several exit polls that the NDA would get a majority or be very close to it. The polls also stated that the BJP would get its highest tally ever – and win seats within the spectrum of a few over 200 to a little less than 300. Most polls had also predicted that the Congress would be reduced to its lowest every tally. Also, it was portended that among the regional parties, the AIADMK and Trinamool Congress were likely to come up as the two biggest regional parties with over and above 20 seats each.  

The use of social media in 2014  
The manner in which social media was utilized in this general election was something very few would have been able to guess in the 2009 election. Within a time period of 15 days prior to the elections, as per the Live Real Time Election Tracker, there were more than 10,000 mentions on Twitter, combining all political parties; and the Aam Aadmi Party  lead the same by 4000 plus mentions. On the web too, there were over 10,000 mentions about the three leading parties combined together; while BJP lead with 5000 mentions. On facebook and Twitter, millions of users were following and participating in posts related with politics. A lot of this usage on such platforms is the outcome of the success of Barrack Obama’s political campaign of 2012 using social media.
Literally each day, competing hash tags like #NaMoInUdhampur came into the picture and became the main topic of discussion for the entire day. Political parties made full use of YouTube, Faceboook, Twitter, Google Hangouts and other sites to get access to the people’s mindsets and to fine tune them into their own synergies. In the 2014 elections, as per the Election Commission, an estimated 778 million voters were eligible to vote.

Of this, about 17 million voters were first time voters of the age of 18 to 19.These were young, nubile minds and to mold their opinions, use of social media was rampant. By this time, there were reportedly 82 million Indian citizens on Facebook – and a large percentage of them were using this platform to discuss candidates, campaigns and election issues of the country. In fact, Facebook even rolled out a add-on feature which allowed users to add in a life event that they are registered to vote and can even share their story about who they are voting for, and when, where and how.

So, where do we go from here?
Such was the use of mass communication devices to fight this election, that it was unparalleled in the history of this great country. Now, with literally each passing day, newer tacts and tricks are being introduced in this field. Thus, it remains to be seen what more newness would spring forth in the general elections to be held in 2019.

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Tuesday, 4 April 2017

AN ANALYSIS: BROADCASTING JOURNALISM AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA

Broadcast journalism, is the field of news and journals which are broadcast. By this we mean, published by electrical means in place of as in printed matter. These methodologies could be radio, television or the internet. Hence, broadcasting journalism is a kind of news reporting which is presenting facts, data and news analysis to the masses and the classes via the media of the above-mentioned type of media.
When it comes to television, it is known that in India, television viewership comprises 674.5 million people, which is about 50 percent of the total population of the country. Television reaches about 475 million people each day in India, as compared with print media which accesses about 282 million people or radio which touches base with 110 million residents daily.
As far as radio is concerned, in India, the network of All India Radio or the AIR as it is popularly referred to, reaches 99.19 per cent of our population. It brings forth programming in 23 languages and 146 dialects in the country as on date and it covers nearly 92 per cent of the total area of India.
In the Internet arena, India has over and above 460 million users and is the second largest online market in the world, second to only China. It is reported that by the year 2021, we are set to cross the 635.8 million user mark. However, despite these numbers, internet is accessed by only 26 per cent of our total population. In these statistics, it is men who comprise 71 percent usage as compared with a very low figure of 29 percent women who use this facility.



A picture is worth a thousand words…………….
Broadcast journalism, however, is very powerful and not just in terms of the numbers it represents. We all know that a picture is worth a thousand words. We also know that we tend to remember what we hear more than what we read about. This is the way the human psyche works. Hence, what we see or hear about make more indelible impressions on our minds and souls than what we read in print. Thus, it stands to reason that television and radio create more impressions on us than what a newspaper does. In this manner, they have the power to change, to transform and bend our mindset more than the print media.
All these above mentioned statements point towards one fact. That it is the duty, the responsibility, of broadcast journalists to realize the value of their work. That, they must keep in mind social and political ethics while they broadcast news and other stories. These will bear a very deep mark on the people they reach up to. Thus, a lot of care should be exerted in presenting the truth and nothing but the truth.

Do not glamorize news…………..
What should be always known is that news must not be glamorized. Broadcast journalists should not fall into the trap of getting high TRPs. It is the value, the essence of the whole story which should not get lost in the hype surrounding it. Sometimes, news concerning celebrities, film and sports personalities will beget higher viewership. However, limit the time you devote to such coverage. Try to highlight a wider cross section of events happening all across the country and even the globe. Also, devote time and space to those occasions which will bring in a higher maturity level in our society – do not spend valuable footage on those stories which will just make noise about what a so and so high society person is wearing or saying.

Present social issues with an interesting twist………..
It is social issues which must be presented to the populace with an interesting twist. If it is put forth in a dull and boring manner, no one will watch it. All that someone has to do is just click away that particular channel and surf into another. Hence, what we see must be springy, eye catching and noteworthy. This is the golden rule number one followed by successful broadcast journalists. However, it is up to the concerned journalist to add in humor and interest in such a manner that a monotonous subject becomes something inspiring. In this way, he or she can grab eyeballs and ears and make important connect with people about issues which really matter to our society – those topics which will make a difference in making India more aware, more mature, more knowledgeable as a country.  

The real tact of a good broadcast journalist is in this one sphere – how to make a social issue, which will benefit our society, come alive in the minds of viewers. There are two paths which a broadcast journalist can take. One is to show up stories which are popular with viewers. The other is to try to make an impact on those who are watching or listening to broadcast media by bringing forth social calls to them. This, as mentioned above, should not be done in a routine way – it will not gain any watchers or listeners. Whatever is broadcast, should be created with such tact that it attracts an audience. It is then that your duty as a true blue and a winner of a broadcast journalist is fulfilled.   
                                                                
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Monday, 3 April 2017

Social responsibility theory: IIMM

In the mid part of the twentieth century, as per records, a lot many developing and third world countries made use of the social responsibility theory. This theory is linked with the Commission of the Freedom of Press in the United States in 1949.

The social responsibility theory permits free press without being bombarded by the throes of censorship. However, in the same breath, what it lays down is that the content being put out by the press can be taken up by public panels and put under scrutiny. Media, too should allow in discussions on the material they bring forth.

This theory treads the middle path in all journalistic matters. It tries to meet the criteria of being authoritarian as well as imbibe the ethos of the libertarian theories – this basically translates into being totally free of control on one side and be under control of external forces on the other.
As per this, press ownership is private. This also means that news reports are not just coverage of events and happenings. They are, in fact, analysis of what is happening where. It is not sheer reportage, and nor is it a viewpoint of any one given individual. Articles appearing in the press are a healthy mix of the two. The commission of press council even mentioned the following points:
1.       Formulate a code of conduct for the press
2.       Improve standards of journalism
3.       Safeguarding interests of journalism and journalists
4.       Criticise and make penalty for violating the code of conduct.
The theory permits:
1.       All individuals can put forth their point of view about media
2.       It does allow what is termed as serious invasion of recognised private rights and vital social interests
3.       Private ownership in media may in fact provide a better public service unless the government has to take over to assure the public to provide better media service.
4.       Media must have social responsibility and if they do not, government or some other organisation will do so.
There exist critics of the social responsibility theory as well. They say:
1.       That the theory avoids the situation of conflict during war or emergency by going ahead with public opinion
2.       Media does not play the monopoly card as they can be charged of manipulation.
3.       Media standards will improve.
4.       Media will connect with all classes of society and not just concentrate on those who matter.
5.       Media does make a bid to work autonomously but there is a level of interference from the government and other public organisations.

What is social responsibility?

Social responsibility, in the true sense of the phrase, is ethics which guide any action which puts an obligation towards the environment, society, culture and economy. The media, like any other amulet, should not harm, but promote environment and socio-cultural issues in connect with the economy of the concerned place. The model of the social responsibility theory was designed by Siebert, Peterson and Schramm in 1956. Basically it means that there should be no strict governance on media or any of its arms. The governance should come from within the media and those who are its protagonists with some bit of overseeing by certain public bodies.
From within their own selves, they should try to report correct news and not tilt it towards any angle to suit any given party involved in the incident. The point of view which emanates forth in any media article should be strictly non-leaning towards any end of the curvature. In fact, it should be a straightforward coverage which gives equal credence to all twists and turns in the basic story line.

However, it does advocate a bit of control in the form of screening of news material through public obligation and interference. Before this theory came into being, facts were stated without any kind of analysis of what was going on and why it was so. Analytical reporting was the consequence of the introduction of this theory. However, this did result in certain grave concerns. Sometimes, the stories were twisted out of context and the journalists got the power to interpret the news as per their understanding of the facts of the matter.
This is what should be avoided. News stories should be an unbiased, but, however, an analysed piece of events. With the social responsibility theory, the voice of those who are voiceless is given a chance to be heard. The objectives of media, as per this theory in its raw format are: to inform, document, analyse, interpret, mediate and mobilise by creating awareness and finding solutions for existing issues.

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